Suppression of the fires by water is made installations of water fire extinguishing, by fire cars and water trunks (manual and lafetny). For water supply in these installations use the water supply systems arranged at the industrial enterprises and in settlements.
Powder structures are, in particular, the only means of suppression of the fires of alkaline metals, and other metalloorganic connections (them the industry on the basis of carbonates and bicarbonates of sodium and potassium, phosphorus- salts, powder on the basis of a grifit for suppression of metals, etc. makes).
Fire cars divide into the tankers delivering the water and solution of frother to the fire and equipped with trunks for water supply or air and mechanical foam of various frequency rate, and special, intended for other fire extinguishing means or for certain objects.
Foams apply to suppression of the strong and liquid substances which are not entering interaction with water. Fire extinguishing properties of foam determine it by frequency rate - the foam volume relation to the volume of its liquid phase, firmness, dispersion and viscosity. The nature of combustible substance, a condition of course of the fire and supply of foam render to the vliyena on these properties of foam besides its physical and chemical properties.
Observance of fire-prevention rules, norms at design of buildings belong to technical actions, at the device of electricity cables and the equipment, heating, ventilation, lighting, the correct placement of the equipment.
Galoidouglevodoroda will badly be dissolved in water, but well mix up with many organic substances. Fire extinguishing properties of galoidirovanny hydrocarbons increase with increase in moryany mass of the haloid containing in them.
Such substances and materials which at ignition by a foreign source continue to burn and after removals belong to the combustible. Refer such substances which are not capable to extend a flame to the slow-burning and burn only in a place of influence of an impulse; the substances and materials which are not igniting even at influence enough powerful impulses are nonflammable.
One of the main conditions with which have to satisfy external water supply systems, ensuring the constant pressure in a water supply system supported by constantly operating pumps, a water tower or pneumatic installation is. This pressure is determined often from an operating condition of internal fireplugs.
The water containing various salts and given a compact stream possesses considerable conductivity and therefore it cannot be applied to suppression of the fires of objects which equipment is energized.
Fire extinguishing ability of water is caused by the cooling action, dilution of the combustible environment in couples and mechanical impact on the burning substance, i.e. failure of a flame which are formed at evaporation. The cooling effect of water is defined by considerable sizes of its thermal capacity and warmth of steam formation. The diluting action leading to decrease in the content of oxygen in air is caused by that steam volume by 1700 times exceeds the volume of the evaporated water.
Stationary installations are intended for suppression of the fires in an initial stage of their emergence without participation of people. They are mounted in buildings and constructions, and also for protection of external technological installations. On the applied fire extinguishing means they are subdivided on water, foamy, gas, powder and steam. Stationary installations can be automatic and manual with remote start-up. As a rule, automatic installations are equipped also with devices for manual start-up. Installations happen water, foam-forming and installations of gas suppression. The last more effectively are also less difficult
Emergence of burning of substances and materials at influence of thermal impulses with a temperature over temperature of ignition is characterized as ignition, and emergence of burning at temperatures below temperature of spontaneous ignition belongs to self-ignition process.